If not quite burning yet, the eurozone is kindling. For once, most people agree why: money is very tight.
The central bank’s interest rate is low, yes, but this is not a good measure of the stance of monetary policy. What matters is the interest rate relative to the ‘natural’ interest rate – ie, what it would be in a free market. It’s difficult to know what this natural rate is (as Hayek would tell us) but we can look at things like nominal GDP and inflation to help us guess. Both are way, way below levels that the market is used to. Deflation is back on the menu.
As Scott points out, whatever you think about the American or British economies since 2008, the Eurozone looks like a case study in central bank failure:
The eurozone was already in recession in July 2008, and eurozone interest rates were relative high, and then the ECB raised them further. How is tight money not the cause of the subsequent NGDP collapse? Is there any mainstream AS/AD or IS/LM model that would exonerate the ECB? I get that people are skeptical of my argument when the US was at the zero bound. But the ECB wasn’t even close to the zero bound in 2008. I get that people don’t like NGDP growth as an indicator of monetary policy, and want “concrete steppes.” Well the ECB raised rates in 2008. The ECB is standing over the body with a revolver in its hand. The body has a bullet wound. The revolver is still smoking. And still most economists don’t believe it. ”My goodness, a central bank would never cause a recession, that only happened in the bad old days, the 1930s.”
. . . And then three years later they do it again. Rates were already above the zero bound in early 2011, and then the ECB raised them again. Twice. The ECB is now a serial killer. They had marched down the hall to another office, and shot another worker. Again they are again caught with a gun in their hand. Still smoking.
Meanwhile the economics profession is like Inspector Clouseau, looking for ways a sovereign debt crisis could have cause the second dip, even though the US did much more austerity after 2011 than the eurozone. Real GDP in the eurozone is now lower than in 2007, and we are to believe this is due to a housing bubble in the US, and turmoil in the Ukraine? If the situation in Europe were not so tragic this would be comical.
There is a point here. Economic news, by its nature, tends to emphasise interesting, tangible, ‘real’ events over things like central bank policy changes (let alone the absence of changes).
Of course that can be deeply misleading. The stance of money affects the whole economy (at least the whole economy that does business in nominal terms, which is pretty much everything except for gilt markets). Right now, the stance of money in the Eurozone is very tight, and the Eurozone is experiencing exactly the sort of problems that someone like Milton Friedman would predict tight money would create.
Overall, the Euro looks like the most harmful institution in the world, except perhaps for ISIS or the North Korean govt. It may be unsaveable in the sense that it will never really be an optimal currency area, but looser policy (which free banking would provide) would probably alleviate many of the Eurozone’s biggest problems. Instead, what Europe has is the NHS of money – big, clunking and unresponsive to demand.
And it seems wilfully misguided about what it needs to do. The only argument against this is that surely—surely—the ECB knows what it’s doing. Well, what if it doesn’t?